Muhammad al Baqir was born in Medina in 676, his father was Ali Zayn al Abidin, the fourth Shia Imam, his mother was the daughter of Hasan named Fatima. He was not involved in politics and was known for being a pensive person who devoted his life to religious studies. When his brother, Zaid ibn Ali led a rebellion against the Umayyads, Muhammad counseled him against taking on the strong forces of the Ummayads. Muhammad al Baqir's knowledge allowed him to become a teacher, and he is well remembered for his knowledge in both religious and judicial matters. His son, Jafar as Sadiq was a student of his, and no doubt he benefitted greatly from his father's knowledge.
Despite his aversion to politics, he was harassed continually by the Umayyad rulers. They were afraid of his popularity and the influence his scholarly works had. In addition, the actions of his brother and other kinsmen made them distrustful of him. He died on January 31, 743, some believe of poisoning. He is buried in Medina, in the Jannat ul-Baqi cemetary.