The Doukhobor reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004
(provided by Fixed Reference: snapshots of Wikipedia from wikipedia.org)

Doukhobor

Connect with a children's charity on your social network
The Doukhobors are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Current status
3 External Links
4 References

History

The origin of the '\'Doukhobors is obscure, but probably occurred during the 17th century in southern Russia. Though use of the name began in 1785, some authorities identify them with an earlier group called Ikono-bortsi (meaning icon wrestlers) because of their renunciation of the Russian Orthodox Church ritual or worshipping icons. In 1785, Archbishop Ambrosias of the Russian Orthodox Church referred to a group of Russian peasants as Dukho-bortsi, in an effort to identify them as heretics. The term means spirit wrestlers. Ambrosias used it as a derogatory label. Though intended as an insult, the name Doukhobor'' was appropriated by the dissident group. They gave it their own interpretion - that in struggling for a better life they would use only spiritual power.

Doukhobors rejected secular government, the Bible, and the divinity of Jesus Christ. They were also ardent pacifists. For these reasons the Doukhobors were harshly repressed in Russia. Both the tsarist state and church authorities were involved in the torture and exile of these dissidents, as well as taking away their normal freedoms. At the end of the nineteenth century the Doukhobors began to leave Russia en masse. They chose Canada for its isolation and peacefulness, and migrated there in 1899. The Doukhobors' passage across the Atlantic Ocean was paid for by Quakers, who sympathized with their plight, and by novelist Leo Tolstoy. In Canada, the Doukhobors established a communal life style, similar to the Hutterites.

Perhaps the most dynamic leader of the Doukhobors to date was Peter Vasilevich Verigin (b.? - d.1924). Verigin was killed in a train explosion on October 29, 1924.

Current status

Today the majority of Doukhobors (an estimated 40,000) live in Canada. Perhaps another 30,000 live in Russia. The Union of Spiritual Communities of Christ, also known as Orthodox Doukhobors or Community Doukhobors, was formed by Peter P. Verigin (son of Peter V. Verigin) in 1938. It is the largest and most active Doukhobor organization, and is headquartered in British Columbia, Canada.

Most of the Doukhobors no longer live communally. Their prayer meetings and gatherings are dominated by the singing of acapella psalms, hymns and spiritual songs in Russian. Doukhobors do not practice baptism. They reject several items considered orthodox among Christian churches, including church organization & liturgy, the inspiration of the scriptures, the literal interpretation of resurrection, the literal interpretation of the trinity, and the literal interpretation of heaven and hell. They avoid the use of alcohol, tobacco, & animal products for food, and involvement in partisan politics. Doukhobors believe in the goodness of man and reject the idea of original sin.

The religious philosophy of the Doukhobors is based on two commandments: "Love God with all thy heart, mind and soul" and "Love thy neighbour as thyself." The Doukhobors have several important slogans. One of the most popular, "Toil and Peaceful Life," was coined by Peter V. Verigin.

Doukhobors are often associated with the Molokans, who originated in the same circumstances in Russia. At the end of the 17th century the protest movement against the official church split into Molokans and Doukhobors. These groups are distinguished more by their original social composition than by any major theological differences. Also the Molokans chose a leadership of elders rather than a single authoritative leader as the Doukhobors.

External Links

References