It is traditional in western society for children to be looked after by one or both of their parents, but the need for two-job households means that childcare is often delegated, at least part of the time, to childminders or crèches.
Most Western countries also have compulsory education, and during the time the children are at school, the school will act in loco parentis.
Where parents are missing or dead, or unable or unfit to care for children, state agencies such as social services may take on the childcare role.
Rich people may delegate the parental role almost completely to nannies.
Most countries have laws relating to childcare, which seek to prevent and punish child abuse.
In many societies, the childcare role is taken on by the extended family.
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