The Astronaut reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004
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U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut using a manned maneuvering unit. Picture courtesy NASAEnlarge

U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut using a manned maneuvering unit. Picture courtesy NASA

An astronaut, cosmonaut or taikonaut is a person who travels into space, or who makes a career of doing so. The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. In the United States, persons who travel above an altitude of 50 miles (80 kilometers) are designated as astronauts. The FAI defines spaceflight as over 100 km. To April 18, 2004, a total of 440 humans by the US definition had spent a total of 27,082 crew-days in space including 98 crew-days of spacewalks. 434 people qualify under the FAI definition. Astronauts from at least 32 countries have gone into space.

International variations

By convention, an astronaut employed by the Russian Aviation and Space Agency or its Soviet predecessor is called a cosmonaut. "Cosmonaut" is an anglification of the Russian word космонавт (kosmonavt), which in turn derives from the Greek words kosmos, meaning "universe" and nautes, meaning "sailor". Actually, "cosmonaut" and "astronaut" are synonyms in both languages, and the usage of choice on both sides is often dictated by political reasons. On March 14, 1995 astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to ride to space on-board a Russian launch vehicle, arguably becoming the first American cosmonaut in the process.

The term taikonaut is sometimes used in English for astronauts from China by Western news media. The term was coined in May 1998 by Chiew Lee Yih from Malaysia, who used it first in newsgroups. Almost simultaneously, Chen Lan coined it for use in the Western media based on the term "tàikōng" (太空), Chinese for space. In Chinese itself, however, the term yuhangyuan (宇航員 yǔháng yuán) ("space navigator") has long been used and refers to astronauts and cosmonauts, and the closest term using taikong is taikongren, which means space alien. In addition, official English text issued by the Chinese government almost invariably uses the term astronaut.

Space milestones

The first astronaut was Yuri Gagarin, who was launched into space in April 1961 aboard Vostok 1. The first woman astronaut was Valentina Tereshkova, who was launched into space in June 1963 aboard Vostok 6. Alan Shepard became the first American in space in May 1961. On October 15 2003 Yang Liwei became China's first astronaut on the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft. Other ethnic Chinese that have been in space include Edward Lu (卢杰 lú jié), Taylor Wang (王赣骏 wáng gànjùn), Leroy Chiao (焦立中 jiāo lìzhōng) and Zhang Fulin (张福林 zhāng fúlín), all of whom are from the USA.

The youngest person to fly in space is Gherman Titov, who was roughly 26 years old when he flew Vostok 2, and the oldest is John Glenn who was 77 when he flew on STS-95. The longest stay in space was 438 days by Valeri Polyakov. Up to 2003, the most spaceflights by an individual astronaut was seven. The furthest distance from Earth an astronaut has traveled was 401,056 km (during the Apollo 13 emergency).

International astronauts

Up until the end of the 1970s only Americans and Soviets were active astronauts. In 1976 the Soviets started the Intercosmos program with a first group of 6 cosmonauts from fellow socialist countries, a second group started training in 1978. At about the same time in 1978 the European Space Agency selected 4 astronauts to train for the first Spacelab mission on board of the Space Shuttle. In 1980 France started their own selection of astronauts (called spationauts), followed in 1982 by Germany, in 1983 by Canada, in 1985 by Japan and Italy in 1988. Several more international payload specialist were selected for the Space Shuttle, and also later for international Soyuz missions of Russia. In 1998 the European Space Agency formed a single astronaut corps of 18 by dissolving the former national corps of France, Germany and Italy.

Astronaut training

United States Air Force Astronaut Insignia Badge
Insignia Badge for Astronauts in the
United States Air Force

The first group of astronauts tended to be jet fighter pilots from military backgrounds.

Astronaut deaths

So far, eighteen astronauts have been killed on space missions, and at least ten more have been killed in training accidents on the ground. For details, see Space disaster.

See also