Events and Trends
- Italian unification under King Victor Emmanuel II. Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States (March 17, 1861 - September 20, 1870).
- American Civil War fought between the remaining United States of America under President Abraham Lincoln and the self-declared Confederate States of America under President Jefferson Davis (April 12, 1861 - April 9, 1865). Beginning of the Reconstruction era under President Andrew Johnson (1865 - 1869).
- French occupation of Mexico (1863 - 1867). Replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez (1861 - 1863) at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (1863 - 1864) and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico (1864 - 1867). Benito Juárez eventually manages to recover his position (1867 - 1872).
- Meiji Restoration in Japan (1866 - 1869). Tokugawa Yoshinobu , 15th and last of the Tokugawa shoguns loses control to the Meiji Emperor. A series of reforms follows. The samurai class fails to survive while the Daimyo turn to politics.
- Catholicism Reaction against Higher Criticism and liberal movement in Europe
- Emperor Franz Josef (Austria-Hungary)
- Emperor Napoleon III (France)
- King Victor Emmanuel II (Italy)
- Pope Pius IX
- Emperor Alexander II (Russia)
- Queen Victoria (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Lord Palmerston (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Lord Derby (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone (United Kingdom)
- President James Buchanan (United States)
- President Abraham Lincoln (United States)
- President Andrew Johnson (United States)